- $ 60 /yr
The ClearCenter Antimalware Updates service provides daily signature updates in addition to those that are freely available from the community. Research shows small businesses experience, on average, 5 malware events per year. Recovering from the d...
- $ 60 /yr
A typical organization with 20 employees could lose upwards of $4,000 / year in lost productivity sifting through and filtering out spam that made it to their inboxes. This app ensures the antispam engine is kept up-to-date with the latest technique...
- $ 100 /yr
Content Filter Blacklists
Studies reveal the average employee spends 75 minutes per day using office computers for non-business related activity, costing employers thousands of dollars per year, per employee. If you are a business owner, government agency or academic institu...
DNSthingy gives you granular control over each user's Internet experience. The following features can be applied network wide, or on a device by device basis:
- Block ads (even on mobile devices connected to WiFi)
- Block inappropriate ...
Dynamic DNS is an app that works with ClearCenter's Service Delivery Network (SDN) to continually update a system's IP address to a static hostname (for example, myname.poweredbyclear.com). Many ISPs use dynamic IP addresses as a way of managing the...
The Dynamic VPN app is an extension to ClearOS's IPSec VPN app. The service allows IPSec to be used in situations where either one or both of the gateways are on a dynamic IP address issued by the ISP or in cases where instability using unmanaged IP...
Google Apps Account Sync
Google Apps Synchronization app provides a connector to Google's "in the cloud" API. This app simplifies an administrators job by provisioning a Google App account while creating an on-premise user account in ClearOS. In addition, secure and transpa...
- $ 100 /yr
Intrusion Protection takes an active role at the edge of your network. It detects attempts to gain access to your system by known exploits and then pro-actively firewalls your server from the perpetrator. Having additional attack vector signatures i...
Netify provides visibility into the traffic on your network along with the option to take an active role (on supported devices) in stopping/shaping undesirable traffic from recurring on your network...
Nextcloud for Business - 10 User Pack
Additional 10 users for Nextcloud Business for ClearOS.
Remote Data Backup
ClearCenter's Remote Server Backup Service app provides secure, simple and reliable backups to the cloud. All data is encrypted, both in transit and on the storage clusters managed by ClearCenter. Simple, yet powerful, snapshots allow the administra...
Additional Cloud Storage
Additional 100GB storage space for ClearCenter's Remote Server Backup Service app.
Remote Security Audit
Remote Security Audit is a service for system administrators to limit the damage potential of corrupted or tampered system files. Reviewed on a regular basis, the audit can quickly notify an admin so damage control measures can be taken in a timely ...
Remote System Monitor
The ClearCenter Remote System Monitor app checks processor utilization, hard disk and memory usage in addition to monitoring ports that should normally be available outside your network (eg. Mail, Web server, VPN etc.). The service checks the status...
A list of repositories available to the server. A software repository is a storage location where updates and new packages can be downloaded and installed on the server. Apps available in the Marketplace are dependant on which repositories are enabl...
The Software Updates app provides updates for the underlying operating system components. Availability of updates are dependant on which software repositories are enabled.
1-to-1 NAT maps a public IP address to a private IP address. It allows systems behind the firewall and configured with private IP addresses (RFC 1918) appear to have public IP addresses.This feature requires additional public IP addresses from your I...
The Bandwidth Manager app can shape and prioritize network traffic passing through the server (when configured in gateway mode). This app is an essential tool for administrators who wish to implement Quality of Service for services such as browsing,...
Bandwidth and QoS Manager
The Quality of Service (QoS) app is a network feature that allows administrators to prioritize certain types of Internet traffic. Enabling QoS decreases the likelihood that at any given time, a single user or device might be able to absorb most, if ...
Allows customized firewall (iptables) rules to be added. In advanced or highly customised networking environments, the addition of advanced firewall rules that cannot be added using the available firewall apps (Incoming, DMZ, MultiWAN, Port Forwardi...
The DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) app provides automatic IP settings to devices (computers, smartphones, tablets, printers etc.) connecting to your network. If you are using this server to create a new network, replace an existing route...
The DMZ app allows an administrator to create a physical subnetwork, providing accessibility from untrusted networks (eg. the Internet) while maintaining isolation to the Local Area Network (LAN). Typically, a DMZ is used to host an organization's e...
The DNS Server app provides a localised DNS server for the LAN. DNS provides resolution for mapping IP addresses to easily remembered hostnames (i.e. db1.lan, web1.lan etc.).
The dynamic firewall app allows an administrator to generate and implement very specific, time-based, firewall rules triggered off events. For example, rather than opening up ports for SSH or OpenVPN to the entire Internet, the Dynamic Firewall app c...
The Egress Firewall app enforces policy on traffic leaving your network. Two modes are available - allow all and blanket block. Allow all allows all outgoing traffic through, with the exception of rules you create based on destination port or hostn...
The incoming firewall app allows administrators to simply open ports (or port ranges) for services running locally on the server. If a service requires connections from outside your network to be made (i.e. running a web or mail service on a system ...
An app providing administrators with the ability to configure the most common network tasks. Depending on the number of physical Network Interface Cards (NIC) present in your server, the server can be configured in standalone (1 NIC) or gateway (2+ N...
Invisible Browsing VPN (ibVPN) is a service that allows you to surf the Web invisibly and securely without leaving a trace and without being tracked. By using an ibVPN server located in another country you can access geographically locked content an...
The multi-WAN feature in ClearOS allows you to connect your system to multiple Internet connections. Multi-WAN offers many benefits to environments requiring a reliable connection to the Internet, including load balancing, packet segregation and auto...
The Network Time Protocol app synchronizes the server's internal clock with Internet standard time servers. Computers and Internet devices on the LAN can then sync clocks against the local time server, achieving a very high degree of accuracy.
The Network Map scans then network for devices and provides a way to associate devices with specific end users. This app provides an easy way for administrators to make networking and access control decisions based on a particular user associated wi...
The OpenVPN app is a server-side implementation of the OpenVPN protocol. This versatile protocol makes it ideal for either client to server or server to server VPN tunnels using TCP or UDP.
The PPTP VPN app is a server-side implementation of the PPTP protocol. It is primarily used for client-server VPN tunnels (as opposed to server-server). The main advantages of this protocol are ease of use and low cost as the client-side software i...
The port forwarding firewall app allows an administrator to direct incoming service requests via port (or port ranges) to other devices on the Local Area Network (LAN). The destination device is usually a server providing an Internet service like ho...
The RADIUS Server app provides an implementation of the RADIUS protocol, using FreeRADIUS. RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service) features centralized management, authentication, authorization and accounting management for computers and...
The SSH Server (or Secure SHell) app allows an administrator to quickly and simply configure basic settings of the SSH server. SSH is a network protocol for allowing remote access to the systems Command Line Interface, or CLI. Modifying the securit...
Static IPsec VPN for Business
IPsec VPN allows administrators to establish secure, encrypted connections between networks using Openswan. Openswan supports IPsec or IKE and connections from third party devices in host-to-host or site-to-site configurations. This app implements p...
Static IPsec VPN for Home
IPsec VPN allows administrators to establish secure, encrypted connections between networks using Openswan. The basic IPsec VPN app supports IPsec or IKE and connections in host-to-host or site-to-site configurations between ClearOS (Openswan) gatew...
Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) is a suite of networking protocols that allows networked devices to discover each other's presence on the network and establish functional network services for data sharing, communications and entertainment. UPnP is in...
The Application Filter can detect and block apps like Facebook, Netflix, Snapchat, and many others. It performs deep packet (DPI) and SSL certicate analysis to categorize and block dozens of services that be significant productivity drains in the wo...
Attack Detector scans your system for authentication failures across various types of services installed on your system. If the failure threshold is reached, the app will block the attacking system.
Content Filter Engine
The Content Filter app allows an administrator to enforce browsing policy. Policy can be enforced across all users or, group definitions can be created, allowing an admin to categorise users into groups - to be filtered uniquely based on the group p...
The Antiphishing engine is designed to help prevent your users from visiting sites designed to steal personal information by dubious means. This includes preventing known malicious sites that look and feel like banks or other trusted sites which enti...
The Antivirus app is designed to help prevent virus attacks against desktop computers, laptops, smartphones etc. by providing a gateway perimeter. The scanner has the ability to filter non-encrypted web traffic and FTP downloads via the browser. Th...
Gateway Management Business
This simple, new and disruptive Gateway Management App blocks productivity-sapping content and protects your network from attackers.
Gateway Management Community
This simple, new and disruptive Gateway Management App blocks productivity-sapping content and protects your network from attackers.
Intrusion Detection System
The Intrusion Detection app is the cornerstone of security for any size network. The app uses the highly regarded Snort engine to perform real-time traffic analysis and packet logging on Internet Protocol (IP) networks. The app can help identify, l...
Intrusion Prevention System
The Intrusion Prevention app is a plugin to the Intrusion Detection system. The service dynamically creates firewall rules (iptables) to block IP packets if a packet stream matches a known attack signature. Signatures are provided by the intrusion ...
Premium Gateway Antimalware by Kaspersky Labs
Gateway Antimalware Premium is powered by Kaspersky Lab to provide secure web browsing for your organization. The app transparently scans and automatically removes malicious and potentially hostile programs from incoming HTTP/FTP traffic using techn...
The Protocol Filter is an application layer packet classifier. It can be used to block unwanted traffic from your network - the most common being to ensure employees, students or end users are using their Internet access for its intended use. The se...
Web Access Control
Time-based Access Control allows an administer to enforce time-of-day web access to users or computers (IP or MAC address) using the web proxy.
Web Proxy Auto Discovery
The Web Proxy Auto-Discovery Protocol is a method used by client devices on the network to locate a URL of a configuration file using DHCP and/or DNS discovery methods. Once detection and download of the configuration file are complete it can be exe...
Web Proxy Server
A web proxy acts as an intermediary server for web requests originating from the Local Area Network. Implementing a proxy server is optional, however, several benefits are gained such as increasing page access times (using caching), decreasing bandw...
AMIBIOS Management for ClearOS supports updating the BIOS for servers such as the HPE MicroServer which uses the AMIBIOS.
Advanced Print Server
The Print Server app provides a common print interface to printers on the network. This allows clients on the LAN to share print resources and eases administration into one centralized service.
Antimalware File Scanner
The File Scan app scans the server's file system for infected files.
ClearGLASS Business provides advanced orchestration, monitoring, automation, security, visibility and control to make it easier to manage heterogeneous private and public cloud infrastructure all from within one console. With ClearGLASS you can centr...
ClearGLASS Community provides orchestration, security, visibility and control to make it easier to manage heterogeneous private and public cloud infrastructure all from within one console. With ClearGLASS you can centrally manage on-premises and off-...
The directory server is an implementation (using OpenLDAP) of the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol. The directory contains information on user records, computers, access controls etc. that can be accessed by services running on the server in ad...
- $25 each
Domoticz Home Automation
Domoticz is a light weight home automation system that lets you monitor and configure miscellaneous devices, including lights, switches, various sensors/meters like temperature, rainfall, wind, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, electricity usage/production...
The FTP (File Transfer Protocol) Server app uses ProFTP (http://www.proftpd.org/) - a highly configurable, Open Source, FTP server software application. FTP can be used as a standalone service to provide file access (upload or download) by authorise...
A Flexshare is a flexible and secure collaboration utility which integrates four of the most common methods of accessing files or content - Web, FTP, File sharing (SAMBA) and Email (as attachments).
Manage iLO (Integrated Lights-Out) settings for multiple systems on your network.
IMAP and POP Server
The IMAP and POP server app provides a standard set of services for mail clients (Thunderbird, Mail, Evolution, Outlook/Express etc.) to connect to the server and retrieve email. If you are interested in running a lightweight mail server without cal...
Kopano Basic is an open-source, full-featured collaboration and groupware platform. Kopano includes a web-based interface for performing mail, address book and calendar functions. It is designed for organizations that require the assurance of profe...
Kopano Basic - 10 User Pack
Additional 10 users for Kopano Basic for ClearOS.
An open-source antispam scanner for the SMTP Mail Server app. This app will scan mail during messaging handling and perform functions defined by rules configured by the administrator. For commercial applications, ClearCenter offers additional spam r...
An open-source antivirus and antimalware scanner for the SMTP Mail Server app. This app will scan mail during messaging handling and perform functions defined by rules configured by the administrator. The service will automatically fetch base signatu...
The Mail Archive system logs all incoming and outgoing e-mail passing through the gateway and stores exact copies for archival. Metadata extracted from each message is stored in a database for search and retrieval. This module can be used to meet r...
For servers configured to provide on-premise mail service, the greylisting app can dramatically reduce the amount of spam reaching user's mailboxes. The mail transfer agent (MTA) will temporarily reject any attempt to deliver mail to the server from...
The Mail Retrieval app can be used to fetch mail from external POP and IMAP servers. This app can be useful if users want a single unified inbox pulling from multiple mail sources (eg. Gmail account, Facebook account, vanity domain etc.).
MariaDB Database Server
MariaDB is an open-source, Relational Database Management System (RDMS) offering multi-user access to any number of defined databases.
Microsoft Active Directory Connector
ClearCenter's Active Directory Connector app is designed to leverage existing Microsoft AD infrastructure and simplify administrative and user control. Administrators can quickly and securely roll out policy decisions using their existing Active Dir...
Nextcloud for Business
The Nextcloud for Business app provides universal access to your files via the web, your computer or your mobile devices - wherever you are. The Nextcloud app is integrated with the ClearOS user interface and allows you to sync and share data private...
Nextcloud for Home
The Nextcloud for Home app provides universal access to your files via the web, your computer or your mobile devices - wherever you are. The Nextcloud app is integrated with the ClearOS user interface and allows you to sync and share data privately b...
ownCloud for Business
The ownCloud for Business app provides universal access to your files via the web, your computer or your mobile devices - wherever you are. The ownCloud app is integrated with the ClearOS user interface and allows you to sync and share data privately...
ownCloud for Business
Additional 10 users for ownCloud Business for ClearOS.
ownCloud for Home
The ownCloud for Home app provides universal access to your files via the web, your computer or your mobile devices - wherever you are. The ownCloud app is integrated with the ClearOS user interface and allows you to sync and share data privately bet...
The PHP Engines app allows an administrator to select the PHP version to run inside each web server virtual host.
Having troubles keeping all your digital photos organized on your server? Photo Organizer attempts to automate the process by providing the user with a simple interface to setup any number of source directories and move and/or rename photos to a mas...
Plex Media Server
The Plex Media Server is a backend application to help you manage and stream media to almost any network connected device. This app has been integrated to ClearOS's Network Map app that allows you to restrict when users/devices on the LAN can access ...
Premium Mail Antimalware by Kaspersky Labs
Mail Antimalware Premium is powered by Kaspersky Lab to scan and remove malware before ending up in users inboxes where opening attachments or clicking on embedded links can cause significant damage to systems and networks. Kaspersky Lab is firmly p...
- $15 each
ProxyPass allows the configuration of a reverse proxy. This application can be used for servicing HTTP(S) requests to a background server or host multiple virtual hosts on separate SSL certificates using SNI.
A webmail client for IMAP which uses the Web Server app to provide a browser-based, multi-lingual e-mail user interface. The app is powered by Roundcube. Features include MIME support, address boo...
The SMTP Server app uses Postfix (http://www.postfix.org/) in either of two modes - SMTP server or mail gateway. As an SMTP server, it can be used as an on premise mail server, providing email to multiple custom domains. It can be a cost-effective a...
Serviio Media Server
Serviio is a free media server. It allows you to stream your media files (music, video or images) to renderer devices (e.g. a TV set, Bluray player, games console or mobile phone) on your connected home network. Serviio works with many devices from ...
Transmission BitTorrent Client
Transmission is a free, lightweight BitTorrent client. It features a simple, intuitive interface on top on an efficient, cross-platform back-end. Transmission has the features you want from a BitTorrent client: encryption, a web interface, peer exch...
The web server app provides an instance of the Apache server along with basic tasks for creating new website assets. The Apache webserver is the worlds most popular web server, no doubt as a result of its track record for security, features, scalabi...
Windows Networking (Samba)
The Windows Networking app installs SAMBA - an open source suite of services that allows file and print interoperability between systems running under Microsoft Windows and this server.
WordPress website content management system (or CMS). This app simplifies the installation and setup of WordPress websites inside the Web Server app. It is maintained by Xtreem Solutions - a company focused on providing professional services for web...
Zarafa Community is an open-source, full-featured mail storage and groupware solution. Zarafa includes a web-based interface for performing mail, address book and calendar functions. The Community Edition can support any number of users via the web...
2FA for Webconfig
Two-factor authentication (2FA) for Webconfig strengthens access security by requiring two methods to verify a user's identity. Before granting access to resources available via Webconfig, a user will be sent a random code after their username and p...
APC Battery Backup Manager
APC Battery Backup/UPS provides status information, reporting and administrative actions for managing supported APC UPS models.
Perform bulk import of users to the system using the Account Import app. Import template supports Comma Separated Values (CVS) that can be created from any spreadsheet application (OpenOffice, Excel etc.).
An overview of installed plugins and extensions to the user directory that allows user-based features to be enabled/disabled easily.
Account Synchronization provides the necessary tools to manage users, groups, passwords and other account information across distributed slave systems.
An Access Control List (ACL) allowing an administrator (root) to grant sub-administrator access to specific configuration pages within webconfig on a per user basis.
BackupPC is a high-performance, enterprise-grade system for backing up Linux and Windows desktops and laptops to a local storage array (eg. server's disk). BackupPC is highly configurable and easy to install and maintain. This on-premise (private cl...
Bare Metal Backup and Restore
The Bare Metal Backup/Restore app saves and restores both users' home directories and the configuration settings to and from a USB disk.
SSL certificates are the industry standard for encrypting information sent over a network and can also be used to provide authentication, as in the case of SMIME email signature signing. The Certificate Manager app provides an administrator with the ...
Configuration Backup and Restore
The configuration backup and restore app allows an administrator to take a snapshot (archive file) of all configuration settings of the system, allowing easy restoration in the event data is lost. The backup file can be copied and stored to a deskto...
The dashboard app provides a high-level summary of how your system is configured, how it is performing and what users on doing on the server.
Date and Time
Allows you to set the system date, time and timezone settings on the server.
Displays information on what ClearOS edition is configured.
The groups app allows an administrator to create, delete and modify groups on the system. Groups can be used to efficiently manage permissions in accessing server resources.
Let's Encrypt is an open certificate authority that provides free SSL certificates. The app intelligently integrates the certificate lifecyle and management into Webconfig to be used by other services - Webconfig, website hosting, Openfire etc.
Many apps and services in the Marketplace use email to notify administrators of events that may require their attention. The mail notification app provides an MTA to relay messages sent from the server - useful if you are not running a full SMTP (ma...
The Mail Settings app provides the necessary tools to manage core mail functionality.
ClearCenter's Marketplace is an online store featuring apps and services (both free and paid) for ClearOS. Apps available in the Marketplace have gone through a stringent quality control process by ClearCenter to ensure the quality and security of e...
Master/Slave Synchronization provides the necessary tools to manage users, groups, passwords and other account information across a distributed infrastucture serving different geographic locations.
Mobile Demo for Android OS
This application demonstrates how to access the ClearOS API framework from a mobile phone using a REST-like protocol. IT IS INTENDED FOR DEVELOPERS ONLY. The bundled application is for Android[TM] devices, but could be easily adapted to support iOS...
The Password Policies app can be used to enforce the password quality (strength) in use by end-users. Enforcing strong passwords and/or policies that can be used, for example, to expire passwords will ensure users assist in good security practice in...
Control the system daemons and their running state and provides a useful overview. You can also control which services start up at boot time.
The Shell Extension is a account-manager extension that allows an administrator to assign shell access (and type) to user accounts via the user manager app. Giving users shell access to the server is not typically recommended unless the user has a r...
Software RAID Manager
The Software RAID app provides status information, reporting and interaction for administering a software RAID array. This app is a UI integration and interface for the ubiquitous madadm so...
The Storage Manager allows you to map large data shares to storage volumes.
Some individuals or organizations have the ability to be self-sufficent when it comes to managing their IT environment, however, many prefer (or require) access to professional support services. ClearCARE is ClearCenter's technical support subscript...
System registration provides access to the Marketplace containing hundreds of apps to customize your server and receive the latest updates. Creating an account and registering your system is quick and easy.
Security certificates are used to secure various apps that you use on a day to day basis.
The User Profile app is used to change your password and, depending on your system settings, update other profile settings.
The users app allows an administrator to create, delete and modify users on the system. Marketplace apps that plugin directly to the user directory will automatically display options available to a user account. For example, if the PPTP Marketplace...
The secure, web-based management framework that provides users with an intuitive user interface to manage and configure apps. Webconfig also provides developers and 3rd-party Integrated Software Vendors (ISV) with an API and web framework to quickly...
The Bandwidth Viewer draws a live graph of your interfaces bandwidth. This can help to determine the maximum speed of your interfaces and identify bandwidth problems across your network.
Disk Usage Report
An interactive graph representing filesystem usage.
Events and Notifications
The Events and Notifications app logs all types system events on the server. Alerts could be informational, as in User xyz logged in at hh:mm or of a more critical nature - Disk space exceeded 95%. Alerts are generated in real-time using a daemon th...
Filter and Proxy Report
The Filter and Proxy Report provides both a graphical and tabular view of web usage on your network. With the Filter and Proxy Report, administrators can quickly and easily identify inappropriate material being accessed from within the network, work...
Tabular display of all system log files. Viewing and searching of log files are essential and typically the first step in troubleshooting problems with your server.
The Network Report app provides network throughput information on all your network interfaces.
The Network Visualizer app captures and displays data flow traversing your network in real-time. Despite requiring some technical knowledge in networking principles, this app can be extremely useful in troubleshooting and diagnosing bandwidth issues...
Tabular display of all programs (processes) running on the server. Specific information on each process is listed, including process ID (PID), running time, CPU and memory usage and owner.
The Resource Report app includes information on load, memory usage and running processes.
The SMART Monitor app provides an overview of the self-monitoring, analysis and reporting technology (SMART) system built into many ATA, IDE hard drives. The purpose of SMART is to monitor the reliability of the hard drive and predict drive failures,...
The System Report app includes information on the operating system and underlying hardware.
ABOUT THIS APP
- LATEST VERSION:
- RELEASE DATE:
- October 25, 2017
- INTRODUCED TO MARKETPLACE:
- February 06, 2015
- TECHNICAL SUPPORT HELP CONSULT PHONE TICKET PROFESSIONAL BUSINESS
- LIBRARY LICENSE:
Some individuals or organizations have the ability to be self-sufficent when it comes to managing their IT environment, however, many prefer (or require) access to professional support services. ClearCARE is ClearCenter's technical support subscription designed to meet the needs of a wide range of budgets and support requirements. While the app is free, technical support from ClearCenter is not. This app provides links to possible resources that are available should you need assistance in configuring your system.
Documentation for this app can be found here.
- ContactClearCenter Development Team
- Nextcloud for Home
The Nextcloud for Home app provides universal access to your files via the web, your computer or your mobile devices - wherever you are. The Nextcloud app is integrated with the ClearOS user interface and allows you to sync and share data privately between users or publically to remote users. You can give people acess to your latest photos, your music or anything else you want them to see. It is your data and your own personal private cloud. Nextcloud access can be assigned to specific users with assigned storage quotas. Existing data mounted on the server can also be shared through its interface. It also provides a platform to easily view and sync your contacts, calendars and bookmarks across all your devices and enables basic editing right on the web. The Nextcloud for Home app includes access for up to 10 users, ClearOS LDAP integration and developer support via the forums. It is limited to a 10 user maximum. If you would like to use Nextcloud without contributing/paying for this app, the nextcloud RPM is available for free and can be installed via the CLI by enabling the clearos-contribs repository. Eg: yum --enablerepo=clearos-contribs install nextcloud Please see the online documentation for more information.
- Remote System Monitor
The ClearCenter Remote System Monitor app checks processor utilization, hard disk and memory usage in addition to monitoring ports that should normally be available outside your network (eg. Mail, Web server, VPN etc.). The service checks the status of your gateway/server on a regular interval, pro-actively notifying you of problems before they become a network-wide problem.
- Dynamic VPN
The Dynamic VPN app is an extension to ClearOS's IPSec VPN app. The service allows IPSec to be used in situations where either one or both of the gateways are on a dynamic IP address issued by the ISP or in cases where instability using unmanaged IPSec tunnels exists. This service is also ideal for those not familiar with the IPSec protocol - making setting up IPSec tunnels between ClearOS systems as simple as entering a secure passphrase and selecting systems from a drop down list. This service is currently available only in making tunnels between ClearOS systems - it does not assist in creating tunnels between ClearOS and 3rd party implementations of the IPSec protocol (i.e. other security devices).